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你或许拥有无限的财富,一箱箱的珠宝和一柜柜的黄金。 但你永远不会比我富有—— 我有一位读书给我听的妈妈!

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初一 pep英语 语法  

2014-02-16 18:01:05|  分类: 英语角 英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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—词法

1、名词

A)、名词的数

一)在后面加s。如:fathers, books, Americans, Germans, apples, bananas

二)x, sh, ch, s, tch后加es。如:boxes, glasses, dresses, watches, wishes, faxes

三)1)以辅音字母加y结尾的变yi再加es 如:baby-babies, family-families, duty-duties, comedy-comedies, documentary-documentaries, story-stories

2)以元音字母加y结尾的直接加s。如:day-days, boy-boys, toy-toys, key-keys, ways

四)以o结尾加s(外来词)。如:radios, photos, 但如是辅音加o的加es:如: tomatoes西红柿, potatoes马铃薯

五)以ffe结尾的变fv再加es(s)。如:knife-knives, wife-wives, half-halves, shelf-shelves, leaf-leaves, yourself-yourselves

六)单复数相同(不变的)有:fish, sheep, deer鹿子, Chinese, Japanese

七)一般只有复数,没有单数的有:people,pants, shorts, shoes, glasses, gloves, clothes, socks

八)单词形式不变,既可以是单数也可以是复数的有:police警察局,警察, class班,同学, family家,家庭成员

九)合成的复数一般只加主要名词,多数为后一个单词。如:action movie-action movies, pen pal-pen pals; 但如果是由manwoman所组成的合成词的复数则同时为复数。如:man doctor-men doctors, woman teacher-women teachers

十)有的单复数意思不同。如:fish fishes鱼的种类, paper papers报纸,卷子,论文, work工作 works作品,工厂, glass玻璃 glasses玻璃杯,眼镜, orange桔子水 oranges橙子, light光线 lights, people peoples民族, time时间 times时代, 次数, chicken 鸡肉 chickens 小鸡

十一) 单个字母的复数可以有两种形式直接加s或’s。如:Is (Is), Ks (Ks)。但如是缩略词则只加s。如:IDs, VCDs, SARs

十二) 特殊形式的有:child-children, man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, mouse-mice, policeman-policemen, Englishman-Englishmen

B)名词的格

当我们要表示某人的什么东西或人时,我们就要使用所有格形式。构成如下:

一)单数在后面加’s。如:brothers, Mikes, teachers

二)复数以s结尾的直接在s后加’,如果不是以s结尾的与单数一样处理。如:Teachers Day教师节, classmates; Childrens Day六一节, Womens Day三八节

三)由and并列的名词所有时,如果是共同所有同一人或物时,只加最后一个’s,但分别拥有时却分别按单数形式处理。如:Mike and Bens room迈克和本的房间(共住一间),Mikes and Bens rooms迈克和本的房间(各自的房间)

2、代词

项目 人称代词 物主代词 指示代词 反身代词

人称 主格 宾格 形容词 名词性

第一人称 单数 I me  my mine myself

复数 we us  our ours ourselves

第二人称 单数 you you your yours yourself

复数 you you your yours yourselves

第三人称 单数 she her  her  hers  herself

he  him his  his   himself

it  it   its   its    this that  itself

复数 they them their theirs these those themselves

3、动词A 第三人称单数

当动词是第三人称单数时,动词应该像名词的单数变动词那样加s

一)一般加s。如:comes, spells, waits, talks, sees, dances, trains

二)x, sh, ch, s, tch后加es。如:watches, washes, wishes, finishes

三)1)以辅音字母加y结尾的变yi再加es。如:study-studies, hurry-hurries, try-tries

2)以元音字母加y结尾的直接加s。如:plays, says, stays, enjoys, buys

四)以o结尾加es。如:does, goes

五)特殊的有:are-is, have-has

B 现在分词

当我们说某人正在做什么事时,动词要使用分词形式,不能用原形:

一)一般在后加ing。如:spell-spelling, sing-singing, see-seeing, train-training, play-playing, hurry-hurrying, watch-watching, go-going, do-doing

二)以不发音e的结尾的去掉e再加ing。如:dance-dancing, wake-waking, take-taking, practice-practicing, write-writing, have-having

三)以重读闭音节结尾且一个元音字母+一个辅音字母(注意除开字母组合如show showing, draw-drawing)要双写最后的辅音字母再加ing。如:put-putting, run-running, get-getting, let-letting, begin-beginning

四)以ie结尾的变iey再加ing。如:tie-tying die-dying lie-lying 位于

4、形容词的级

我们在对两个或以上的人或物进行对比时,则要使用比较或最高级形式。构成如下:

一) 一般在词后加erest(如果是以e结尾则直接加rst)。如:greater-greatest, shorter shortest, taller tallest, longer longest, nicer- nicest, larger -largest

二)以重读闭音节结尾且1个元音字母+1个辅音字母(字母组合除外,如few-fewer fewest)结尾的双写结尾的辅音再加er /est。如:big-bigger biggest, red-redder reddest, hot-hotter hottest

三) 以辅音字母+y结尾的变yier/est。如:happy-happier happiest, sorry-sorrier sorriest, friendly-friendlier friendliest(more friendly most friendly), busy-busier busiest, easy-easier easiest

四)特殊情况:(两好多坏,一少老远)

good/well - better best many/much - more most bad/ill – worse worst

little- less least old- older/elder oldest/eldest far- farther/further farthest/furthest

5、数词 (基变序,有规则;一、二、三,自己背;五、八、九、十二;其它后接thy结尾,变为i, eth跟上去。) first, second, third; fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth; seventh, tenth, thirteenth, hundredth; twenty-twentieth, forty-fortieth, ninety-ninetieth

二、七年级英语语法——句式

1.陈述句

肯定陈述句 a) This is a book. (be动词)

b) He looks very young. (连系动词)

c) I want a sweat like this. (实义动词)

d) I can bring some things to school. (情态动词)

e) Theres a computer on my desk. (There be结构)

否定陈述句 a) These arent their books. b) They dont look nice.

c) Kate doesn’t go to No. 4 Middle School. d) Kate can’t find her doll.

e) There isn’t a cat here. (=There’s no cat here.)

2. 祈使句

肯定祈使句 a) Please go and ask the man. b) Lets learn English!

c) Come in, please.

否定祈使句a) Dont be late. b) Dont hurry.

3. 疑问句

1) 一般疑问句 a) Is Jim a student? b) Can I help you? c) Does she like salad?

d) Do they watch TV? e) Is she reading?

肯定回答: a) Yes, he is. b) Yes, you can. c) Yes, she does. d) Yes, they do. e) Yes, she is.

否定回答: a) No, he isnt. b) No, you cant. c) No, she doesnt. d) No, they dont. e) No, she isnt.

2) 选择疑问句 Is the table big or small? 回答 Its big./ Its small.

3) 特殊疑问句

问年龄 How old is Lucy? She is twelve.

问种类 What kind of movies do you like? I like action movies and comedies.

问身体状况 How is your uncle? He is well/fine.

问方式 How do/can you spell it? L-double O-K.

How do we contact you? My e-mail address is cindyjones@163.com.

问原因 Why do you want to join the club?

问时间 Whats the time? (=What time is it?) Its a quarter to ten a.m..

What time do you usually get up, Rick? At five o’clock.

When do you want to go? Let’s go at 7:00.

问地方 Wheres my backpack? Its under the table.

问颜色 What color are they? They are light blue.

What’s your favourite color? It’s black.

问人物 Whos that? Its my sister.

Who is the boy in blue? My brother.

Who isn’t at school? Peter and Emma.

Who are Lisa and Tim talking to?

问东西 Whats this/that (in English)? Its a pencil case.

What else can you see in the picture? I can see some broccoli, strawberries and hamburgers.

11问姓名 Whats your aunts name? Her name is Helen./Shes Helen.

What’s your first name? My first name’s Ben.

What’s your family name? My family name’s Smith.

12 问哪一个 Which do you like? I like one in the box.

13 问字母 What letter is it? Its big D/small f.

14 问价格 How much are these pants? Theyre 15 dollars.

15 问电话号码 Whats your phone number? Its 576-8349.

16 问谓语(动作) Whats he doing? Hes watching TV.

17 问职业(身份) What do you do? Im a teacher.

What’s your father? He’s a doctor.



 

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